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The lyophilization process primarily consists of three stages. The first stage is freezing, which involves freezing the product and creating a solid matrix suitable for drying. This step impacts the drying characteristics of the next two stages. The second stage is pri...


Cause: It is a phenomenon which occurs in amorphous solids when the product reaches a higher temperature than the collapse temperature, Tc (closer to the glass transition temperature Tg’). The amorphous phase of the solid experiences internal movement without r...

Freeze-drying is a very gentle dehydration process used for preservation of high quality foods.

During the 1950s, industrial freeze-drying of foods began. Coffee was one of the first freeze dried food products to be produced, but now vegetables, fruits, meats, fish, dai...

The transfer of the recipe from laboratory scale to production scale is one of the biggest obstacles for manufacturers.

Freeze drying is a technology that entails a high energy consumption. A poorly optimized recipe can cause the economic cost of making the lyophilized...

Freeze driers are designed to be chemical resistant to most compounds that are commonly used in freezedrying processes.

However, a freeze dryer is comprised of a number of different materials, some of which may be attacked and degraded by certain chemicals. The degree o...

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